二轮复习高三英语语法专题九

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高中英语语法专题复习教案大全

本次二轮复习语法专题共15个教案,上一期给大家带来了冠词相关知识点

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语法复习专题九——非谓语动词

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1

非谓语动词的句法功能注意的几个问题

2

动词不定式复心中应注意的几个问题

(1)不定式作表语与“be + to do sth.”的异同。不定式作表语说明主语的内容或性质。

例如:

His job is to guard. (说明内容)

be + to do sth.(表示按计划要做的事)

(2)带不定式作宾语的词语。

下列词语常不定式作宾语:afford、promise、refuse、expect、hope、learn、offer、wish、want、fail、plan、agree、forget、like、prefer、decide、manage、try、arrange、determine、desire等。

下列动词后可接疑问词+不定式:

teach、decide、wonder、show、learn、forget、ask、find、out、advise、discuss等。

(3)如何理解和使用不定式作宾补。

①动词see、watch、notice、hear、listen to、observe、feel、taste、smell、make、let、have等的宾补用动词原形,变被动时要加to,此时的不定式就是主语补足语。

②常用带不定式作宾补的几种情况:

主语 + ask / require / tell / order / force / get / want / like + sb.

二轮复习高三英语语法专题九

to do sth.

③主语 + think / judge / suppose / believe / consider /imagine/

consider / feel + sb. + to be/ to have done

④主语 + call on / upon / depend on / wait for / ask for + sb.+ to do sth.

(4)不定式作定语的特殊用法。

①下列词语后常接不定式作定语:

chance、wish、right、courage、need、promise、time、opportunity、way、the first、the second、the last、the only等。

②不定式作定语和所修饰的名词在逻辑上有主谓关系。

例如:

There is no one to look after her.

③不定式与被修饰的名词在逻辑上有动宾关系。

例如:

She is now looking for a room to live in.

(5)不定式作状语的用法。

不定式作状语,修饰动词,在句中表示行为目的、结果、原因。only to do表示出人意料的结果。

例如:

We hurried to the classroom only to find none there .

in order(not)to,so as(not)to用来引导目的状语,enough,too, so… as to do, such + 名词… as to do作结果状语,

例如:

The girl was so kind as to help the old man off the bus.

I’m not such a fool as to believe that.

(6)不定式的完成时的特殊用法。

①表示不定式中谓语动词发生的动作先于主句的谓语动词发出的动作。

例如:The novel was said to have been published.

I regret to have been with you for so many years.

seem、appear、be said、be supposed、be believed、be thought、be known、be reported等动词常用于上面句型。

此外,glad、happy、satisfied、sorry、surprised、disappointed后也接完成时,但要注意与一般时的区别。

例如:

I’m sorry to keep you waiting for a minute.

对不起,请稍等。(说话时还未等)

I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.

对不起,让你久等了。(说话时已等了很久)

②不定式的完成时还可表示“过去本想做某事但未做”的虚拟语气。

(A)should like to / would like to / would love to + 不定式的完成时。

(B)was / were to + 不定式的完成时,表示该做某事或想做但未实现。

(C)expect / hope / mean / promise / suppose / think / want/ wish + 不定式完成时,表示过去未曾实现的愿望。

(7)不定式的省略。

①同一结构并列由and或or连接。

例如:

I want to finish my homework and go home.

I’m really puzzled what to think or say.

特例:

To be or not to be,this is a question.

He is better to laugh than to cry.(表示对比)

②不定式作表语,其前面的主语从句中含有do时,后面的to省略。

例如:

What he did was lose the game.

③句中含有动词do时,but、except、besides、such as等后面to可省略。即“前有do,后省to”。

例如:

Don’t do anything silly, such as marry him.

④主句含有不定式,后面有rather than, rather than后省to。

⑤Why not、had better、would rather、can’t but等词后省to。

例如:

He could not but walk home.

(8)不定式的替代。

多用在同一句或联系紧密的对话中,为了避免重复,作宾语或主补,宾补的不定式再次出现时,to后的内容常承前省略(只保留to即可)。但如果承前省略的不定式有助动用的have或be任何形式,后应该保留原形be或have。

例如:

Susan is not what she used to be.

You came late last night. You ought to have finished your homework.

I know I ought to have.

常见的有:

I’d like / love / be happy to.

(文章图片来源于都是来自pixabay)

3

动名词复习中应注意的几个问题

①may/might表示可能,但may比might可能性大。

例如:

Why isn’t he in class?

He may be sick.(生病的可能性较大)

He might be sick.(生病的可能性较小)

②may/might表示“允许”,may用于现在时或将来时,might常用在间接引语中表过去时,但might也可用于现在时间,表示比较委婉的语气,回答用may。

例如:

He says we may leave.

He said we might leave.

③may / might 表示建议或请求,但might比may 更客气,意思更肯定而无过去时态的含义。

例如:

May / Might I use your bike?

Yes, you can / may.

No, you mustn’t

4

分词复习应注意的几个问题

(1)现在分词在句中作时间、原因、伴随、条件、结果等状语。

①时间状语(分词作状语前面可加when, while等)

例如:

Hearing the good news, he jumped with greatjoy.

Not having finished her work in time, the boss fired her.

②原因状语

Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note

③伴随状语

The girls came in, following their parents.

④结果状语

The poor old man died, leaving nothing to his children.

现在分词作状语的几个特性。

①时间性。

与谓语动词同时发生,用一般时,如发生在谓语动作之前时则用完成式having done。

②语态性。

与句子的主语之间的关系,是主谓关系或动宾关系。遵循的规则“主动进行,被动完成”。

③人称一致性。

分词的逻辑主语就是句子的主语。

(2)分词作表语。

S. + be + 动词-ed表示被动,主语是人;S. + be + 动词-ing表示主动,主语是物。分词作宾补不定式作宾补的区别:

感官动词 动词原形→做了某事

S.+ + 宾语 + 现在分词→正在做某事

使役动词 过去分词→做了或被做

5

复习过去分词应注意的几个问题

过去分词作状语,相当于一个状语从句,有来说明原因、时间、条件等。

(1)过去分词作原因状语

例如:

Tired by the trip, he soon feel asleep.

= Because he was tired by the trip, he soon fell asleep.

Lost in thought, he almost ran into a car.

=As he was lost in thought, he almost ran into a car.

(2)作时间状语

例如:

Seen from the hill, the city looks like a garden.

=When the city is seen from the hill, it looks like a garden.

(3)作条件状语

Given more time, I would have worked out the problem.

=If I have been given more time, I would have worked out the problem.

(4)伴随状语

The teacher came in, followed by some students.

=The teacher came in and was followed by some students.

分词短语作状语时,通常与主句中的主语在逻辑上一致,但有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语,这种结构称为独立主格结构。

例如:

Her grandfather being ill, she had to stay at home looking after him.

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