The old man who/whom /that we visited yesterday is a famous artist.
Miss Wang is taking care of the child whose parents have gone to Beijing .
The man with whom my father shook hands just now is our headmaster. （=The man who/whom that my father shook hands with just now is our headmaster.）注：
（1）The comrade I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works hard.
（2）Anyone who breaks the law should be punished.
These who are going to Beijing are the best students of our school.
3．在there be 开始的句子中
There is a student who wants to see you.
The student that won the first prize is the monitor who works hards.
A。I met a friend of mine in the street, who had just come from Japan.
二．指物的关系代词有which、whose(=of which)、that. 试剖析：
1. I like the books which / that were written by Lu Xun.
2. The desks (which/that) we made last year were very good.
3. This is the house in which we lived last year. (= This is the house which /that we lived in last year.)
4. I live in the room whose windows face south. (= I live in the room ,the windows of which face south.)
A. 介词假使位于作为其宾语的关系代词之前时，只能用whom、 which不能用who或that.
(1). The girl about whom they were talking is our monitor.
(2). The book in which there are many interesting things was written by Li Ming.
Is this the book which she is looking for?
The old man who/whom they are waiting for is Professor Li.
The child who/whom she is looking after is Wang Ping’s son.
C． 指物时，下列状况下只能用that ，不宜用which。
We are willing to do anything that is good to the people.
I have told them all (that) I know.
All that can be done has been done.
The first book that I read last night was an English novel.
This is one of the most interesting films that I have ever seen.
This is the best that can be done now.
We know nothing about the doctors and the hospitals that you are talking about.
There are sheep and men that can be seen on the hill.
（5）假使先行词被the only、the very、the last、the same、any、 few 、little、no、 all 、one of、 just装点时。
This is the only book that can be lent to you.
Which is the dictionary that he used yesterday ?
This is the factory in which we once worked.
This is the book, which is written by Lu Xun.
Those which are on the desk are English books.
E．先行词前有such、the same、 as时, 关系代词用as，不用that, 但the same…as…表示同样的, the same…that…表示同一的
He knows as many people as are present at the meeting.
Such people as you refer to are rare nowadays.
which I still never forget.
This is the day when I joined the party.
which he spent reading the books.
where I found the book.
which makes machines.
This is the place which we once visited.
which I will never forget.
which I am looking for.
All the students who study hard have passed.学习努力的学生都考试达标了。(只有努力的达标了，不必功的没达标。) All the students ,who study hard have passed.所有的学生都达标了，他们学习努力。（不曾人不达标，这些学生都很努力。）
从句是先行词不可缺少的定语（如去掉，主句意思就不完好或不准确。） 从句是对先行词的附加说明（如去掉，主句意思仍明白，不受波及。） 与主句关系亲密，不用逗号 与主句关系不极端亲密，用逗号与主句隔开译为汉语时，从句译在先行词前，与先行词用“的”联结 译为汉语时，从句放在主句后面关系代词that能够轮换who、whom(指人)、which(指物) 关系代词不用that,只用who、whom(指人)、which(指物) 关系代词轮换宾语时能够省略 关系代词不能省略关系代词as和which
○1.This elephant is like a snake, as /which everybody can see. =As everybody can see, this elephant is like a snake. 任何人都看得出来，这头象像条蛇。
○2.Tom didn’t pass the physics exam, which made his parents very angry. Tom物理考试不达标，这使得他父亲很怄气。
1．He was late again, as / which we had expected. =As we had expected, he was late again. 正如我们所料，他又延迟了。/他又延迟了这是我们早就料到的。
2． The street hasn’t been cleared for weeks, which makes it very dirty. 街道好多礼拜不曾打扫了，所以整条街很脏。（不用as）
3．The young man cheated his friend of much money, which was disgraceful. 那年青人诈骗了他好友好多钱财，这是不光荣的。（不 用as）
4．He takes exercise everyday, which has done a lot of good to his health. 他每天活动，这对他的身体很有实惠。（不用as）
5．As has already been pointed out, English is rather difficult for a foreigner. 正如已经指出的那样，英语对于初学者说，是相当难学的。在such…as…、the same…as…、 as…、 as many…/much as…等构造中,as不能用which轮换。如：
1.Such books as this are too difficult for beginners. 这样的书对于初学的人来说是太难了。
=Books such as this are …
=Books like this are …
2.I live in the same building as he (does). 我和他住再同一座大楼里。
3.He knows as many people as are present at the meeting. 他认识所有到会的人。
4.That day we all got up early as usual. 那天我们和日常一样，都起得很早。
“One of the +复数名词”后面定语从句中谓语单复数状况
1． That is one of the books that are required for study at school.
2． This is one of the most wonderful novels that have been published since 1990.
3． She is one of the few persons who know Spanish .
4． This is one of the most famous plays that were written in the thirties,
假使one of +复数名词这一构造前面带有the only、the very之类的限量语，后面定语从句的谓语动词则要用单数形式，这是因为定语从句介含义上装点的是而不是那个复数名词。如：
1.He is the only one of the teachers who knows French in our school.( 装点the only one)
He is one of the teachers who know French in our school.( 装点the teachers)
2.This is the only one of the rooms that is free now. (装点the only one)
This is one of the rooms that are free now. (装点rooms)
1. 关系代词引导的定语从句居句首时。 As we all know, the earth is round.
2. 当与such或the same连用时，平凡用as。 Such books as you tell me are interesting. I have the same plan as you.
3. 当从句和主句语义一致时，用as，反之则用which。 She has married again, as was expected. She has married again, which was unexpected.
4. as在从句中作主语时，后面常接行动动词的被动语态，如be known，be said，be reported等，如从句中行动动词是主动语态，平凡要用which作主语。
She has been late again, as was expected.
Tom has made great progress, which made us happy.
例如：Many people speak English. 谓语：speak的动作是由主语many people来遵行的。 被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者，即行动动作的对象。例如：English is spoken by many people.主语English是动词speak的承受者。 所谓主动句即使由主动态动词(词组)作谓语动词的句子，而被动句则是由被动态动词(词组)作谓语动词的句子。 例如：He opened the door.他开了门。(主动句) The door was opened.门被开了。(被动句)
平凡未来时：will／shall(be going to) be＋taught
先前完结时：had been +taught
先前未来时：would(was/were going to) be+taught
(1)不获悉或不曾必要说明动作的遵行者是谁。 例如： Some more interesting novels were stolen last year. 一些新小说去年被写了。(没说小说是谁写的) This book was published in 1981.这本书出版于1981年。
(2)着重动作的承受者，而不着重动作的遵行者。 例如：the window was broken by Mike.窗户是迈克打破的。 This book was written by him.这本书是他写的。 Eight hours per day for sleep must be guaranteed.每天8小时睡眠必须获取保证。
(3)把主动语态中的主语放在介词by之后作宾语，将主格改为宾格。例如： All the people laughed at him. He was laughed at by all people. They make the bikes in the factory. The bikes are made?by them?in the factory.
例如： We can repair this watch in two days. This watch can be repaired in two days. You ought to take it away. It ought to be taken away. They should do it at once. It should be done at once.
英语有两种语态：主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是谓语动作的遵行者，被动语态 表示主语是谓语动作的承受者。只有及物动词和某些动词短语才智构成被动语态，形式为助 动词 be 加上先前分词。各种时态的被动形式的构成见下表：
各 种 时 态 的 被 动 形 式 表
一 般 时 态 进 行 时 态 完 成 时 态
当前 am/is/are + Ved am/is/are +being+Ved have/has + been + Ved 先前 was/were + Ved was/were +being +Ved had been + Ved 未来 shall/will be + Ved
shall/will have been + Ved 先前未来 should/would be+Ved
should/would have been + Ved
例1：Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which art ificial beings were portrayed had been produced
例2：Whenever we hear of a natural disaster, even in a distant part of the world, we feel sympathy for the people who have been affected
〔考点2〕 当使役动词和感官动词如make, let, hear, help, see 等动词用于被动语态时, 做主语补足语的不定式必须带 to。
例：He was made to carry heavy load every day
〔考点3〕 及物的动词短语也能够构成被动语态，当前要留神 切勿扔掉与动词连用的介词或副词。
例1：The baby is well looked after
例2：Those outofdate rules must be done away with
〔考点4〕 有些动词诚然是及物的，可是由于表示的是态势或 关系，日常不用于被动语态。常 用的此类动词有：cost, fit, have, hold, lack, last, own, possess, resemble, suit 等。
〔考点5〕 半点及物动词用作不如物动词时，后接副词时以主动形式表示被 动的意思。如brea k, cut, fill, lock, open, peel, push, read, sell, shut, wash, wear, write 等。
例1：His new novel sells well
例2：This kind of cloth washes easily
〔考点6〕 一些转变为系动词的感官动词加上表语也能够表示被动的意思。 如：appear, come, fall, feel, go, grow, keep, look, remain, rest, run, smell, stand, sound stay, taste, lie 等。
例：Cloth made of silk feels smoother than that made of cotton
〔考点7〕 bear, deserve, desire, need, require, want 等动词加上动名 词或在 “worth + doing" 构造中，其主动形式表示被动的意思。
例1：The room needs cleaning
例2：This novel is worth reading
2014新目标英语九年级Unit 1 P6 阅读原文与译文
How Can You Become a Successful Learner?
Everyone is born with the ability to learn.
But whether or not you can do this well depends on your learning habits.
Research shows that successful learners have some good habits in common.
Creating an interest in what they learn
Studies show that if you are interested in something, your brain is more active and it is also easier for you to pay attention to it for a long time.
Good learners often connect what they need to learn with something interesting.
For example, if they need to learn English and they like music or sports, they can listen to English songs or watch sports programs in English.
This way they will not get boring.
Practicing and learning from mistakes
Good learners think about what they are good at and what they need to practice more.
Remember, “Use it or lose it.”
Even if you learn something well, you will forget it unless you use it.
“Practice makes perfect.”
Good learners will keep practicing what they have learned, and they are not afraid of making mistakes.
Alexander Graham Bell did not invent the telephone overnight.
He succeeded by trying many times and learning from his mistakes.
Developing their study skills
It is not enough to just study hard.
Good learners know the best way they can study.
For example, they may take notes by writing down key words or by drawing mind maps.
They also look for ways to review what they have learned.
They may do this by reading their notes every day or by explaining the information to another student.
Good learners often ask questions during or after class.
They even ask each other and try to find out the answers.
Knowledge comes from questioning.
Learning is a lifelong journey because every day brings something new.
Everything that you learn becomes a part of you and changes you，
So learn wisely and learn well.
modern 现代的 近代的
up and down 上上下下
table tennis = ping pong乒乓球
jump rope 跳绳
do one’s best尽某人最大的努力
dive 跳水 俯冲
catch up with 赶上 跟上
include 包罗 包罗
result 后果 业绩
few 近乎不曾 很少
whether 是否 不管 无论
structure收拾物 构造 构造
locate 位于 坐落于
whole 彻底的 完好的
dam 水坝 堤坝
gorge 峡 峡谷
the three gorges dam 三峡大坝
average 均匀 平凡程度
bumblebee bat 大黄蜂蝙蝠
falcon 鹰 猎鹰
list 清单 表
unusual 少有的 奇特的
lift 举起 抬起
pull 拉 拖
这个礼拜我们在新星高中询问了学生关于学习英语最佳的形式。 穿越讯问有关于学习英语的办法，好多学生说他们学会了。 有些学生有更加透彻的创议。莉莲-李，例如，最佳的形式学会新的单词是穿越读英国杂志。 说那记住风行音乐歌曲的词她也被救助有点。 当我们询问学习语法，她说，我不曾学习语法, 太无趣。 韦明不同有的感受。 他学习英语六年并真实地爱学英语。 他觉得学习语法是一个宏大形式以用来学会语言。他也觉得那察看的英国电影并不是一个坏窍门，因为他能够察看演员说词。 有时，因为人民太急速，谈话可是，他察发觉看的电影挫败。刘畅说插手学校英语俱乐部是最佳的形式以改进她的英语。 学生获取好多实践，并且他们也获取兴致。她填充了与好友的谈话可应用中文大约不是有用的。她说。
How do you learn best?
This week we asked students at New Star High School about the best ways to learn more English. Many said they learnt by using English. Some students had more specific suggestions. Lillian Li, for example, said the best way to learn new words was by reading English magazines. She said that memorizing the words of pop songs also helped a little. When we asked about studying grammar, she said, “I never study grammar. It’s too boring.” Wei Ming feels differently. He’s been learning English for six years and really loves it. He thinks studying grammar is a great way to learn a language. He also thinks that watching English movies isn’t a bad way because he can watch the actors say the words. Sometimes, however, he finds watching movies frustrating because the people speak too quickly. Liu Chang said that joining the English club at school was the best way to improve her English. Students get lots of practice and they also have fun. She added that having conversations with friends was not helpful at all. “We get excited about something and then end up speaking in Chinese,” she said.
原文：How I learned to learn English
Last year my English class was difficult.First of all,it wasn’t easy for me to understand the teacher when she talked.To begin with,she spoke too quickly,and I couldn’t understand every word.Later on,I realized that it doesn’t matter if you don’t understand every word.I was also afraid to speak in class,because I thought my classmates might laugh at me.I couldn’t always make complete sentences either .Then I started to watch English-language TV.It helped a lot.I think that doing lots of listening practice is one of the secrets of beacoming a good learner.Another thing that Ifound very difficult was English grammar.So I decided to take lots of grammar notes in every class.The I started to write my own original sentences using the grammar I was learning.It’s amazing how much this helped.Now I am enjoying learning English and I got an A this term.My teacher is very impressed.
How do we deal with our problems ?
Rich or poor, young or old, we all have problems. And unless we deal with our problems, we can easily become unhappy. Worrying about our problems can affect how we do at school. It can also influence the way we behave with our families. So how do we deal with our problems? There are many ways.
By learning to forget
Most of us have probably been angry with our friends, parents or teachers. Perhaps they said something you didn’t like, or you felt they were unfair. Sometimes, people can stay angry for years about a small problem. Time goes by, and good friendships may be lost
When we are angry, however, we are usually the ones affected. Perhaps we have seen young children playing together. Sometimes they have disagreements, and decide not to talk to each other. However, this usually does not last for long. This is an important lesson for us: we can solve a problem by learning to forget.
By regarding problems as challenges
Many students often complain about school. They might feel they have too much work to do sometimes, or think the rules are too strict.We must learn how to change these “problems” into “challenges”. Education is an important part of our development. As young adults, it is our duty to try our best to deal with each challenge in our education with the help of our teachers.
By thinking of something worse
By comparing yourself to other people, you will find your problems are not so terrible. Think about Stephen Hawking, for example, a very clever scientist, who regards his many physical problems as unimportant. He can't walk or even speak, but he has become very famous and successful. We are probably quite healthy and smart. Let’s not worry about our problems. Let's face the challenges instead.
My Biggest Problem
My biggest problem is that I’m too busy. When I was young, I used to have so much time, but these days, I get up early and stay in school all day. Then I go right home and eat dinner. Before I started high school, I used to spend a lot of time playing games with my friends, but I just don’t have the time anymore. In the evening, I used to watch TV or chat with my grandmother, but now I have to study. I love music and my father takes me to concerts. These days, I hardly ever have time for concerts. I do my homework and go to bed. I really miss the old days.
He used to cause a lot of trouble
Martin Murray is a fifteen-year-old boy.He used to be a "problem child",but a recent conversation whit his mother changed his life. He didn't use to give his mother many problems. However,after his father's death a few years ago, Martin's life became much more difficult. His mother couldn'tafford to pay for her child's education. To do this, she had to work, and so was often not at home.
His mother looked after him as well as she could. Unfortunately, Martin still cause problems for himself and hie family. He was not interested in studying and he often go into trouble with the police. Luckily, his mother was very patient and didn't give up trying to help him.In the end,she made a difficult decision : to send him to a boy's boarding school. Martin hated it and used to cause a lot of trouble. One day,he told his teacher he wanted to leave the school. Even the teacher agreed that Martin was wasting his time.
The head teacher said it was necessary for Martin to talk with his mother. Martin called hie mother, but to his surprise,this phone call changed his life. "It was exactly what i need," he said. "My mother helped me to understand how much she had given me. She also told me that even though my father was no longer with us, he was watching me and would always take pride in everything good I do. That's when i decided to change. I realize that since my father died, i have been afraid of being alone,and have tried to make my mother my mother pay more attention to me ."
Now Martin has really changed. He has been working hard and is now one of the best students in his class. How was he able to change? His mother"s love helped him to feel good about himself ,and as Martin himself says, "It"s very important for parents to be there for their children."
Sun Fei: We have a lot of rules at my house.
Wu Yu: So do we. For example,I have to stay at home on school nights.
Sun Fei: I usually do, too. But sometimes I'm allowed to study at a friend's house. What about weekends?
Wu Yu: Well, I'm allowed to go to the movies with friends on Friday nights.
Sun Fei: Me,too, but I have to be home by 10:00 pm.
Wu Yu: And on Saturday afternoons, I'm allowed to go shopping with my friends.
Sun Fei: That's nice.
Wu Yu: And I'm allowed to choose my own clothes, but I'm not allowed to get my ears pierced yet.